Warning

Table partitioning is a relatively new and advanded PostgreSQL feature. It has plenty of ways to shoot yourself in the foot with.

We HIGHLY RECOMMEND you only use this feature if you’re already deeply familiar with table partitioning and aware of its advantages and disadvantages.

Do study the PostgreSQL documentation carefully.

Table partitioning

PostgresPartitionedModel adds support for PostgreSQL Declarative Table Partitioning.

The following partitioning methods are available:

  • PARTITION BY RANGE

  • PARTITION BY LIST

  • PARTITION BY HASH

Note

Although table partitioning is available in PostgreSQL 10.x, it is highly recommended you use PostgresSQL 11.x. Table partitioning got a major upgrade in PostgreSQL 11.x.

PostgreSQL 10.x does not support creating foreign keys to/from partitioned tables and does not automatically create an index across all partitions.

Creating partitioned tables

Partitioned tables are declared like regular Django models with a special base class and two extra options to set the partitioning method and key. Once declared, they behave like regular Django models.

Declaring the model

Inherit your model from psqlextra.models.PostgresPartitionedModel and declare a child class named PartitioningMeta. On the meta class, specify the partitioning method and key.

from django.db import models

from psqlextra.types import PostgresPartitioningMethod
from psqlextra.models import PostgresPartitionedModel

class MyModel(PostgresPartitionedModel):
    class PartitioningMeta:
        method = PostgresPartitioningMethod.RANGE
        key = ["timestamp"]

    name = models.TextField()
    timestamp = models.DateTimeField()

Generating a migration

Run the following command to automatically generate a migration:

python manage.py pgmakemigrations

This will generate a migration that creates the partitioned table with a default partition.

Warning

Always use python manage.py pgmakemigrations for partitioned models.

The model must be created by the PostgresCreatePartitionedModel operation.

Do not use the standard python manage.py makemigrations command for partitioned models. Django will issue a standard CreateModel operation. Doing this will not create a partitioned table and all subsequent operations will fail.

Automatically managing partitions

The python manage.py pgpartition command can help you automatically create new partitions ahead of time and delete old ones for time-based partitioning.

You can run this command manually as needed, schedule to run it periodically or run it every time you release a new version of your app.

Warning

We DO NOT recommend that you set up this command to automatically delete partitions without manual review.

Specify --skip-delete to not delete partitions automatically. Run the command manually periodically without the --yes flag to review partitions to be deleted.

Command-line options

Long flag

Short flag

Default

Description

--yes

-y

False

Specifies yes to all questions. You will NOT be asked for confirmation before partition deletion.

--using

-u

'default'

Name of the database connection to use.

--skip-create

False

Whether to skip creating partitions.

--skip-delete

False

Whether to skip deleting partitions.

Configuration

In order to use the command, you have to declare an instance of psqlextra.partitioning.PostgresPartitioningManager and set PSQLEXTRA_PARTITIONING_MANAGER to a string with the import path to your instance of psqlextra.partitioning.PostgresPartitioningManager.

For example:

# myapp/partitioning.py
from psqlextra.partitioning import PostgresPartitioningManager

manager = PostgresPartitioningManager(...)

# myapp/settings.py
PSQLEXTRA_PARTITIONING_MANAGER = 'myapp.partitioning.manager'

Time-based partitioning

from dateutil.relativedelta import relativedelta

from psqlextra.partitioning import (
    PostgresPartitioningManager,
    PostgresCurrentTimePartitioningStrategy,
    PostgresTimePartitionSize,
    partition_by_current_time,
)
from psqlextra.partitioning.config import PostgresPartitioningConfig

manager = PostgresPartitioningManager([
    # 3 partitions ahead, each partition is one month
    # delete partitions older than 6 months
    # partitions will be named `[table_name]_[year]_[3-letter month name]`.
    PostgresPartitioningConfig(
        model=MyPartitionedModel,
        strategy=PostgresCurrentTimePartitioningStrategy(
            size=PostgresTimePartitionSize(months=1),
            count=3,
            max_age=relativedelta(months=6),
        ),
    ),
    # 6 partitions ahead, each partition is two weeks
    # delete partitions older than 8 months
    # partitions will be named `[table_name]_[year]_week_[week number]`.
    PostgresPartitioningConfig(
        model=MyPartitionedModel,
        strategy=PostgresCurrentTimePartitioningStrategy(
            size=PostgresTimePartitionSize(weeks=2),
            count=6,
            max_age=relativedelta(months=8),
        ),
    ),
    # 12 partitions ahead, each partition is 5 days
    # old partitions are never deleted, `max_age` is not set
    # partitions will be named `[table_name]_[year]_[month]_[month day number]`.
    PostgresPartitioningConfig(
        model=MyPartitionedModel,
        strategy=PostgresCurrentTimePartitioningStrategy(
            size=PostgresTimePartitionSize(days=5),
            count=12,
        ),
    ),
])
Changing a time partitioning strategy

When switching partitioning strategies, you might encounter the problem that partitions for part of a particular range already exist.

In order to combat this, you can use the psqlextra.partitioning.PostgresTimePartitioningStrategy and specify the start_datetime parameter. As a result, no partitions will be created before the given date/time.

Custom strategy

You can create a custom partitioning strategy by implementing the psqlextra.partitioning.PostgresPartitioningStrategy interface.

You can look at psqlextra.partitioning.PostgresCurrentTimePartitioningStrategy as an example.

Manually managing partitions

If you are using list or has partitioning, you most likely have a fixed amount of partitions that can be created up front using migrations or using the schema editor.

Using migration operations

Adding a range partition

Use the PostgresAddRangePartition operation to add a new range partition. Only use this operation when your partitioned model uses psqlextra.types.PostgresPartitioningMethod.RANGE.

from django.db import migrations, models

from psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations import PostgresAddRangePartition

class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    operations = [
        PostgresAddRangePartition(
           model_name="mypartitionedmodel",
           name="pt1",
           from_values="2019-01-01",
           to_values="2019-02-01",
        ),
    ]

Adding a list partition

Use the PostgresAddListPartition operation to add a new list partition. Only use this operation when your partitioned model uses psqlextra.types.PostgresPartitioningMethod.LIST.

from django.db import migrations, models

from psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations import PostgresAddListPartition

class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    operations = [
        PostgresAddListPartition(
           model_name="mypartitionedmodel",
           name="pt1",
           values=["car", "boat"],
        ),
    ]

Adding a hash partition

Use the PostgresAddHashPartition operation to add a new list partition. Only use this operation when your partitioned model uses psqlextra.types.PostgresPartitioningMethod.HASH.

from django.db import migrations, models

from psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations import PostgresAddHashPartition

class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    operations = [
        PostgresAddHashPartition(
           model_name="mypartitionedmodel",
           name="pt1",
           modulus=3,
           remainder=1,
        ),
    ]

Adding a default partition

Use the PostgresAddDefaultPartition operation to add a new list partition.

Note that you can only have one default partition per partitioned table/model. An error will be thrown if you try to create a second default partition.

If you used python manage.py pgmakemigrations to generate a migration for your newly created partitioned model, you do not need this operation. This operation is added automatically when you create a new partitioned model.

from django.db import migrations, models

from psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations import PostgresAddDefaultPartition

class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    operations = [
        PostgresAddDefaultPartition(
           model_name="mypartitionedmodel",
           name="default",
        ),
    ]

Deleting a default partition

Use the PostgresDeleteDefaultPartition operation to delete an existing default partition.

Warning

Deleting the default partition and leaving your model without a default partition can be dangerous. Rows that do not fit in any other partition will fail to be inserted.

from django.db import migrations, models

from psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations import PostgresDeleteDefaultPartition

class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    operations = [
        PostgresDeleteDefaultPartition(
           model_name="mypartitionedmodel",
           name="pt1",
        ),
    ]

Deleting a range partition

Use the psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations.PostgresDeleteRangePartition operation to delete an existing range partition. Only use this operation when your partitioned model uses psqlextra.types.PostgresPartitioningMethod.RANGE.

from django.db import migrations, models

from psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations import PostgresDeleteRangePartition

class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    operations = [
        PostgresDeleteRangePartition(
           model_name="mypartitionedmodel",
           name="pt1",
        ),
    ]

Deleting a list partition

Use the psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations.PostgresDeleteListPartition operation to delete an existing range partition. Only use this operation when your partitioned model uses psqlextra.types.PostgresPartitioningMethod.LIST.

from django.db import migrations, models

from psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations import PostgresDeleteListPartition

class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    operations = [
        PostgresDeleteListPartition(
           model_name="mypartitionedmodel",
           name="pt1",
        ),
    ]

Deleting a hash partition

Use the psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations.PostgresDeleteHashPartition operation to delete an existing range partition. Only use this operation when your partitioned model uses psqlextra.types.PostgresPartitioningMethod.HASH.

from django.db import migrations, models

from psqlextra.backend.migrations.operations import PostgresDeleteHashPartition

class Migration(migrations.Migration):
    operations = [
        PostgresDeleteHashPartition(
           model_name="mypartitionedmodel",
           name="pt1",
        ),
    ]

Using the schema editor

Use the psqlextra.backend.PostgresSchemaEditor to manage partitions directly in a more imperative fashion. The schema editor is used by the migration operations described above.

Adding a range partition

from django.db import connection

connection.schema_editor().add_range_partition(
    model=MyPartitionedModel,
    name="pt1",
    from_values="2019-01-01",
    to_values="2019-02-01",
)

Adding a list partition

from django.db import connection

connection.schema_editor().add_list_partition(
    model=MyPartitionedModel,
    name="pt1",
    values=["car", "boat"],
)

Adding a hash partition

from django.db import connection

connection.schema_editor().add_hash_partition(
    model=MyPartitionedModel,
    name="pt1",
    modulus=3,
    remainder=1,
)

Adding a default partition

from django.db import connection

connection.schema_editor().add_default_partition(
    model=MyPartitionedModel,
    name="default",
)

Deleting a partition

from django.db import connection

connection.schema_editor().delete_partition(
    model=MyPartitionedModel,
    name="default",
)